Urology is a branch of medicine that focuses on medical conditions of the male and female urinary tract systems (kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra). A urologist is a medical doctor specializing in conditions that affect the urinary tract in men, women and children, and diseases that affect the reproductive system.These organs include the kidneys, bladder, prostate, testes, and penis. Some common conditions include Prostate cancer,Kidney damage, Incontinence, Bladder cancer ,Testicular cancer, Kidney stones, Interstitial cystitis ,Urinary tract infections etc
Urology is known as a surgical specialty. Besides surgery, a urologist is a doctor with wisdom of internal medicine, pediatrics, gynecology and other parts of health care. This is because a urologist encounters a wide range of clinical problems.
Circumcision (male)

The surgical removal of the skin that covers the tip of the penis is known as circumcision.

For newborn boys, the treatment is rather typical in some countries, including the US.

It is still feasible to circumcise after the infant stage, although the process is more difficult.

Circumcision is a religious ceremony for certain households. The practise may also be dictated by personal hygiene, family custom, or preventive medical care. In some cases, such as when the foreskin is too tight to be drawn back (retracted) over the glans, circumcision is medically necessary.

Bleeding and infection are the most frequent side effects after circumcision. The penis normally heals in seven to ten days

Holmium laser prostate surgery

A minimally invasive procedure to treat an enlarged prostate is holmium laser prostate surgery.

A laser is used in the technique, also known as holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP), to cut away tissue that is obstructing urine flow through the prostate.

The prostate tissue is then sliced into easily-removable pieces using a different tool.

While open prostate surgery necessitates incisions, HoLEP does not. The whole prostate tissue that can obstruct urine flow is removed by HoLEP.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia, or an enlarged prostate, can be permanently treated with this procedure (BPH). HoLEP also keeps excised tissue so that it may be tested for other illnesses, such prostate cancer, in a lab.

Similar to other prostate laser procedures, HoLEP may result in a quicker recovery and symptom relief than conventional prostate surgery.

In rare cases, HoLEP re-treatment may be required for urinary symptoms

Laser surgery for enlarged prostate (Prostate laser surgery)

The condition known as benign prostatic hyperplasia, which is characterised by an enlarged prostate, can be treated with prostate laser surgery to alleviate mild to severe urinary symptoms (BPH).

Your doctor inserts a scope through the tip of your penis into the tube carrying urine from your bladder during prostate laser surgery (urethra). The urethra is surrounded by the prostate, which can become enlarged and limit the flow of urine from the bladder.

The prostate tissue that is obstructing urine flow is shrunk or removed using a laser that is transmitted via the scope.

Urinary symptoms of BPH, such as the need to urinate frequently and urgently, difficulty starting to urinate, and frequent urine, are alleviated with prostate laser surgery.

protracted and slow urination, increased night time urination frequency, urinating repeatedly while pausing and starting again, the impression that you cannot fully empty your bladder, infections of the urinary tract

Additionally, laser surgery may be used to cure or prevent problems including recurrent urinary tract infections that result from obstructed urine flow. bladder or kidney damage, inability to urinate at all or with difficulty controlling one’s urination, urinary stones, urine with blood in it.

When compared to alternative BPH treatment options, laser surgery can provide a number of benefits. The effects of drugs may not be apparent for weeks or even months.

Following laser surgery, improvements in urinary symptoms are immediately apparent.

Intravenous pyelogram

An excretory urogram, commonly known as an intravenous pyelogram, is an X-ray examination of your urinary tract.

Your doctor can see your kidneys, your bladder, and the tubes that transfer urine from your kidneys to your bladder during an intravenous pyelogram (ureters).

To identify conditions that impact the urinary tract, such as kidney stones, bladder stones, an enlarged prostate, kidney cysts, or urinary tract cancers, an intravenous pyelogram may be employed.

You will get an injection of X-ray dye (iodine contrast solution) into a vein in your arm during an intravenous pyelogram. Your kidneys, ureters, and bladder are all traced by the dye as it enters each of these organs.

An intravenous pyelogram can be a useful diagnostic technique, especially for diagnosing kidney stones, some structural urinary tract diseases, and urinary tract blockage.

The IV line is removed from your arm once the intravenous pyelogram is finished, and you are free to resume your regular activities.

Neurogenic bladder and bowel management

Treatments to assist regulate when you urinate or have a bowel movement are part of neurogenic bladder and bowel management.

Sometimes a spinal cord injury prevents the nerves in the spinal cord that regulate bowel and bladder function from communicating with the brain.

This may result in neurogenic bladder or neurogenic bowel dysfunction, which affects the bladder and bowel. Similar issues could affect those who have spina bifida or multiple sclerosis.

Signs and symptoms of neurogenic bladder may include:

  1. Loss of bladder control
  2. Inability to empty the bladder
  3. Urinary frequency
  4. Urinary tract infections.

Signs of neurogenic bowel include:

  1. Loss of bowel control
  2. Constipation
  3. Bowel frequency
  4. Lack of bowel movements.

Orthotopic neobladder reconstruction

A new bladder is created via a surgical process called neobladder reconstruction.

A surgeon can design an alternative route for urine to leave the body if the bladder is no longer functioning correctly or was removed to treat another ailment (urinary diversion).

One method for urinary diversion is neobladder reconstruction.

Some reasons that people have their bladders removed include:

  • Bladder cancer
  • A bladder that no longer works properly, which can be caused by radiation therapy, neurological conditions, chronic inflammatory disease or other disease
  • Urinary incontinence that hasn’t responded to other treatment
  • Conditions present at birth that cannot be repaired
  • Trauma to the bladder

An intestinal fragment is used by the surgeon to construct a new bladder during the procedure. With the redesigned bladder, one can choose when and how often to urinate.

Another name for the technique is an orthotopic neobladder reconstruction.

Orthotopic describes things that are in their normal locations within the body.

The replacement bladder is positioned in the same spot as the old one.


The prostate gland can be completely or partially removed during a prostatectomy.

In the male pelvis, beneath the urinary bladder, is where the prostate gland is located.

It encircles the urethra, which connects the bladder and penis and conducts urine.

The treatment is used to treat a variety of prostate-related diseases. Most frequently, it is used to treat prostate cancer.

Depending on the problem being treated, there are numerous procedures to do a prostatectomy. Options include standard open surgery as well as less invasive procedures carried out with robotic help.

In contrast to a radical prostatectomy, a simple prostatectomy does not always require the removal of the entire prostate. Instead, the prostate’s obstruction to the passage of urine is only partially removed during this treatment.

The procedure alleviates difficulties and symptoms related to urinary tract obstruction, such as:

  • a constant, pressing urge to urinate
  • difficulty beginning to urinate
  • Taking a lengthy time to urinate
  • increased frequency of night time urination
  • urinating repeatedly while pausing and resuming again
  • the sensation that your bladder is partially empty
  • infections of the urinary tract
  • being unable to urinate


A surgical treatment called a transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) involves removing a portion of the prostate.

Only men have the prostate, a little gland in the pelvic. It encircles the urethra and is situated around the penis and bladder (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the penis).

The bladder and urethra may experience pressure if the prostate enlarges. Among the signs of this are difficulties urinating.  When prostate enlargement results in bothersome symptoms and does not improve with pharmaceutical treatment, TURP is frequently advised.

After TURP, symptoms include difficulty starting to urinate, weak urine flow, stopping and starting, needing to strain to urinate, waking up frequently at night to urinate, and not being able to completely empty your bladder may improve.


In order to diagnose and treat a range of urinary tract issues, a tiny scope (similar to a flexible telescope) is introduced into the bladder and ureter. It enables the urologist to really peer inside the ureter, locate the stone, and remove it in the case of ureteral stones (a stone in the ureter). The surgeon inserts a small wire basket through the bladder into the lower ureter, grips the stone, and pulls it free.

With or without the insertion of a stent, this is an outpatient surgery (a tube that is placed in the ureter to hold it open).  Most often ureteroscopy is used for stones in the ureter, especially for stones closest to the bladder, in the lower half of the ureter. lt is the most common treatment of lower ureteral stones.

For stones in the kidney, shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is the most common treatment. SWL treatment cannot be used in everyone. For patients who are pregnant, morbidly obese, or have a blood clotting disorder, ureteroscopy is a good choice.

For very large or oddly shaped stones, or stones that are very hard, other treatments such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy or, rarely, open surgery may be needed.




Stones in the kidney and ureter can be treated without surgery using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Instead, the body is subjected to high-intensity shock waves that are used to smash stones into fragments no bigger than sand grains. These fragments might pass from the body with the urine because of their small size.

Shock wave therapy can be used to remove stones in two different methods. The patient is submerged in lukewarm water in one technique. The body is positioned to precisely target the stones using ultrasound or x-rays to locate their precise location.

In the second, more popular technique, the patient is lying on top of a soft cushion or membrane that allows the waves to pass through. To crush the stones, 1-2000 shock waves are required. The entire procedure lasts between 45 and 60 minutes.

The main benefit of this treatment is the possibility of treating many patients without surgery for kidney stones. The patient can nearly immediately move around after the therapy is over. Within one to two days, many people are able to fully resume their normal routines. There is no need for special diets, however drinking a lot of water facilitates the passage of the stone fragments. When the pieces pass, there may be some pain, which starts soon after treatment and could linger for up to four to eight weeks. Taking oral painkillers and drinking a lot of water will also aid with symptom relief.

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